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1. 미 국무부 사이트에서 정한 교환학생 법령
2. 교환학생 프로그램이 취득할 수 있는 비자체제 안내
3. 주한 미국 대사관에서 J-1 비자는 미국 국무부에서 승인(인가) 받은 프로그램에 한해서만 발급한다는 내용
다음은 미국 국무성 홈페이지(2003년 9월 27일자 국무성 사이트 경로 근거 자료) http://exchanges.state.gov 에 나타난 자료이다.
이 자료는 미국 연방법에 나타나 있는 미국 공, 사립학교 프로그램에 대한 법률로 규정하고 있는 내용으로, 더 구체적인 내용을 알고 싶으면 상기 사이트에 접속하면 알 수 있다.
Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs
Home > The Exchange Visitor Program > Academic and Government Programs
Student, Secondary (High School)
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Student, Secondary (High School)

pertaining specifically to the High School category are found at 22 CFR 62.25.
(미 연방법 22조 62.25에 근거하여 고등학교 교환학생을 통해 외국 학생들이 미국의 공립 사립 학교에서 1년까지 마칠 수 있다는 것을 명시 하고 있음)
Through the high school exchange program, foreign secondary school students enter the United States to complete up to one year of academic study at an accredited public or private secondary school. During their stay, participants live with American host families or reside at accredited U.S. boarding schools. Students attend school as full time students and may attend for not less than one academic semester (or its quarter equivalent) or more than a full academic year.
Eligible participants are between the age of 15 and 18-and-a-half years at the time of initial school enrollment (by the first day of school), or have not completed more than 11 years of primary and secondary school (excluding kindergarten). Students who have previously participated in an exchange program are ineligible for participation in the high school program.
Prior to the students leaving their home country, program sponsors are required to provide them with all travel arrangements and a profile of the school, host family and community in which they have been placed. Students and their parents should be made aware whether their host family is considered an arrival (temporary) family or a permanent family for the school year.
Students may take part in school sanctioned extracurricular activities, including athletics, if the school district and the state authority responsible for determining athletic eligibility approve their participation. Students may not be employed on a part- or full-time basis, but may accept occasional work such as yard work or baby-sitting.
Sponsoring organizations may not under any circumstance facilitate the entry of any foreign student into the United States without a school placement. They must obtain written notice of a participant's acceptance by the school from the principal or other authorized school administrator. Sponsors may not enroll more than five students in one school unless so requested in writing by the school.
Sponsoring organizations are required to screen all potential host families with whom participating students are placed. Sponsors ensure that the family can provide a comfortable and nurturing home environment, and has adequate financial resources to undertake hosting obligations. Under no circumstances will a sponsor facilitate the entry of any student for whom a host family placement has not been secured. A second student may be placed with a host family only with the prior written approval of the Department of State.
Please refer to the program regulations for details on the screening and selection of the students, host families, and the sponsor's administrative obligations and procedures.
미국 국무부 사이트(2003년 9월 27일자 국무성 사이트 경로 근거 자료)
http://travel.state.gov/visa/에서 상기 1항의 법률에 근거해서 미국 공, 사립 교환학생들에게 발급하는 문화 교류비자(J-1)에 대한 것을 설명하고 있다.
J-1 비자(문화교류 비자)는 유학 비자(F-1)과는 다른 체제의 비자로서 미국 국무부에서 승인(인가)한 프로그램에 대해서만 발급한다는 내용을 정리 해 놓고 있다.
U.S. Department of State
Bureau of Consular Affairs
Visa Services
Exchange Visitors

Exchange Visitor Visa Applicants are Encouraged to Apply Early

The Immigration and Nationality Act provides two nonimmigrant visa categories for persons to
participate in exchange visitor programs in the United States. The "J" visa is for educational and cultural exchange programs designated by the U.S. Department of State, Exchange Visitor Program and Designation Staff, and the "Q" visa is for international cultural exchange programs designated by the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services in the Department of Homeland Security (BCIS). (J 비자는 교육적, 문화적 교류 프로그램을 위해 미 국무부에서 인가 한 것을 말하고 있음)
The "J" exchange visitor program is designed to promote the interchange of persons, knowledge, and skills in the fields of education, arts, and sciences. Participants include students at all academic levels; trainees obtaining on-the-job training with firms, institutions, and agencies; teachers of primary, secondary, and specialized schools; professors coming to teach or do research at institutions of higher learning; research scholars; professional trainees in the medical and allied fields; and international visitors coming for the purpose of travel, observation, consultation, research, training, sharing, or demonstrating specialized knowledge or skills, or participating in organized people-to-people programs.
The "Q" international cultural exchange program is for the purpose of providing practical training, employment, and the sharing of the history, culture, and traditions of the participant's home country in the United States.
주한 미국대사관 사이트(2003년 9월 27일자 국무성 사이트 경로 근거 자료)
http://usembassy.state.gov에서 상기 2항의 국무부 지침에 따라 문화교류 비자(J-1) 각국 발급 지침을 소개한 것으로서, 여기에서도 J-1 비자는 미국 국무부에서 승인(인가)한 프로그램에 대해서만 발급해 준다는 내용이 소개되고 있다.
문화교류비자 (J비자)

문화교류비자인 J 비자는 자국 정부나 미국 정부 혹은 기업체나 대학교로부터 후원을 받거나 재정적인 지원을 받아 미국을 방문하는 학자, 과학자, 학생 혹은 사업가를 위한 비자입니다.

문화교류방문자를 후원하는 기관은 미 국무부로부터 승인을 받아야 합니다.
<J-1 비자는 국무부의 승인을 받아야 한다는 것을 설명한 대목(주한미국대사관 홈페이지 참조)>

승인을 받은 기관은 문화교류로 미국을 방문하게 될 J1 비자신청자에게 DS-2019 서류를 발급해 줄 수 있습니다.
DS-2019 서류를 받으면 J1 비자를 신청할 수 있습니다. DS-2019서류를 받았다고 미국 정부가 그 프로그램을 보증한다거나 J1비자 발급을 보증한다는 의미는 아닙니다